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《功能性食品》(英文版)Functional Foods

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First published 2000, Woodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press LLC O2000, Woodhead Publishing Limited The authors have asserted their moral rights Conditions of sale This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission and sources are indicated. Reasonable
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Functional foods Concept to product Edited by Glennr. gibson and christine m. williams CRC CRC Pres Boca Raton Boston New York Washington, DC WOODHEAD PUBLISHING LIMITED Cambridge england

Functional foods Concept to product Edited by Glenn R. Gibson and Christine M. Williams

Published by Woodhead Publishing Limited Abington Hall, Abington Cambridge CBl 6AH England www.woodhead-publishing.com Published in North and South America by CRC Press LLC 2000 Corporate Blvd, NW Boca Raton FL 33431 USA First published 2000, Woodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press LlC o 2000, Woodhead Publishing Limited The authors have asserted their moral rights Conditions of sale This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the authors and the publishers cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials. Neither the authors nor the publishers, nor anyone else associated with this publication, shall be liable for any loss, damage or liability directly or indirectly caused or alleged to be caused by this book. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical luding photocopying, microfilming and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission The consent of Woodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press llC does not extend for promotion, for creating ks. or for obtained in writing from Woodhead Publishing Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the british Libran Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. Woodhead Publishing Limited ISBN 1 85573 503 2 CRC Press isbn 0-8493-0851-8 CRC Press order number: WP0851 Cover design by The ColourStudio Project managed by Macfarlane Production Services, Markyate, Hertfordshire Typeset by MHL Typesetting Limited, Coventry, Warwickshire Printed by TJ International, Padstow, Cornwall, England

Published by Woodhead Publishing Limited Abington Hall, Abington Cambridge CB1 6AH England www.woodhead-publishing.com Published in North and South America by CRC Press LLC 2000 Corporate Blvd, NW Boca Raton FL 33431 USA First published 2000, Woodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press LLC  2000, Woodhead Publishing Limited The authors have asserted their moral rights. Conditions of sale This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the authors and the publishers cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials. Neither the authors nor the publishers, nor anyone else associated with this publication, shall be liable for any loss, damage or liability directly or indirectly caused or alleged to be caused by this book. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publishers. The consent of Woodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from Woodhead Publishing Limited or CRC Press LLC for such copying. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. Woodhead Publishing Limited ISBN 1 85573 503 2 CRC Press ISBN 0-8493-0851-8 CRC Press order number: WP0851 Cover design by The ColourStudio Project managed by Macfarlane Production Services, Markyate, Hertfordshire Typeset by MHL Typesetting Limited, Coventry, Warwickshire Printed by TJ International, Padstow, Cornwall, England

The editors and publisher dedicate this book to Nicholas Jeremy Jardine 1945-2000

The Editors and Publisher dedicate this book to Nicholas Jeremy Jardine 1945–2000

Related titles from Woodhead's food science, technology and nutrition list Benders'dictionary of nutrition and food technology Seventh edition(ISBN: 1 85573 4753) David a bender and Arnold E bender The seventh edition provides succinct, authoritative definitions of over 5000 terms in nutrition and food technology(an increase of 25% from the previous edition). In addition there is nutrient composition data for 287 foods This valuable book continues to fulfil the purpose of explaining to specialists in other fields the technical terms in nutrition and food processing. Chemistry and Industry Food labelling(ISBN: 1 85573 4966) Edited by J Ralph blanchfield Food labelling has become a complex and controversial area. This collection draws on the experience of key experts in their field to provide food manufacturers with a framework within which to plan labelling effectively. It covers both the key legislation ey need to be aware of, and the issues they need to take account of in successful labelling. Functional foods(ISBN: 1 56676 487 4) G Mazza This text brings together key research on the nature and physiological effects of biologically-active components of major plant foods. It also reviews the major processes for extraction, purification, concentration and formulation of functional roducts, and the functional characteristics of end products Phytochemicals as bioactive agents(ISBN: 1 56676788 1) WrBidlack and ms meskin This book focuses on the mechanisms of action of phytochemicals identified as displaying bioactivity in the prevention of cancer, heart disease and other diseases, and he prospects for developing functional foods containing these bioactive compounds Details of these books and a complete list of Woodhead's food science, technology and nutrition titles can be obtained by isitingourwebsiteatwww.woodhead-publishing.com cting Custom es(e-mail: sales a woodhead-publish (0)1223893694;tel 1223 891358 ext 30, address: Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Abington Hall, Abington, Cambridge CBl 6AH, England) If you would like to receive information on forthcoming titles in this area, please send your address to: Francis Dodds(address, tel and fax as above, e-mail publishing. com). Please confirm which subject areas you are nterested in

Related titles from Woodhead’s food science, technology and nutrition list: Benders’ dictionary of nutrition and food technology Seventh edition (ISBN: 1 85573 475 3) David A Bender and Arnold E Bender The seventh edition provides succinct, authoritative definitions of over 5000 terms in nutrition and food technology (an increase of 25% from the previous edition). In addition there is nutrient composition data for 287 foods. ‘This valuable book continues to fulfil the purpose of explaining to specialists in other fields the technical terms in nutrition and food processing.’ Chemistry and Industry. Food labelling (ISBN: 1 85573 496 6) Edited by J Ralph Blanchfield Food labelling has become a complex and controversial area. This collection draws on the experience of key experts in their field to provide food manufacturers with a framework within which to plan labelling effectively. It covers both the key legislation they need to be aware of, and the issues they need to take account of in successful labelling. Functional foods (ISBN: 1 56676 487 4) G Mazza This text brings together key research on the nature and physiological effects of biologically-active components of major plant foods. It also reviews the major processes for extraction, purification, concentration and formulation of functional products, and the functional characteristics of end products. Phytochemicals as bioactive agents (ISBN: 1 56676 788 1) W R Bidlack and M S Meskin This book focuses on the mechanisms of action of phytochemicals identified as displaying bioactivity in the prevention of cancer, heart disease and other diseases, and the prospects for developing functional foods containing these bioactive compounds. Details of these books and a complete list of Woodhead’s food science, technology and nutrition titles can be obtained by: • visiting our web site at www.woodhead-publishing.com • contacting Customer Services (e-mail: sales@woodhead-publishing.com; fax: +44 (0)1223 893694; tel.: +44 (0)1223 891358 ext. 30; address: Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Abington Hall, Abington, Cambridge CB1 6AH, England) If you would like to receive information on forthcoming titles in this area, please send your address details to: Francis Dodds (address, tel. and fax as above; e-mail: francisd@woodhead-publishing.com). Please confirm which subject areas you are interested in

Contents List of contributors List of abbreviations Introduction Part I General issues 1 Defining functional foods M.B. Roberfroid, Universite Catholique de louvain, Brussels L1 Introduction 1.2 Functional foods: defining the concept 1.3 Functional food science 1.4 Communicating functional claims 1.6 Food technology and its impact on functional food development 1.7 Future trends 1 8 References 2 EU legislation and functional foods: a case study P. Berry Ottaway, Consultant, Berry Ottaway and Associates Ltd, Hereto 2 Introduction 2.2 Product description 2.3 Product positioning in the European market 2.4 Product composition

List of contributors ..................................................... xiii List of abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Introduction 1 Part I General issues 1 Defining functional foods ........................................ 9 M.B. Roberfroid, Universite´ Catholiquie de Louvain, Brussels 1.1 Introduction . . ................................................ 9 1.2 Functional foods: defining the concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.3 Functional food science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1.4 Communicating functional claims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 1.5 Case studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 1.6 Food technology and its impact on functional food development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 1.7 Future trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2 EU legislation and functional foods: a case study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 P. Berry Ottaway, Consultant, Berry Ottaway and Associates Ltd, Hereford 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.2 Product description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.3 Product positioning in the European market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.4 Product composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Contents

vili Contents 2.5 Functional claims 2.6 Packaging 2.7 Labelling 2.8 Manufacture 2.9 References 3 US legislation and functional health claims 43 M.K. Schmidl and T.P. Labuza, University of minnesota 3.1 Introducti 43 .2 Definitions 3.3 Nutrient modification and specific nutrient claims 3.4 Disease-specific or disease-prevention(health) claims 3.5 The Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act 1997 3.6 Medical food 3. 7 The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act 1994 3.8 The controversy over labeling 3.9 Advertising and the Federal Trade Commission 3.11 Further reading 67666⑦7 3.12 References Part I Functional foods and health 4 Colonic functional foods R.A. Rastall (University of Reading, R. Fuller(Russett House, Reading, H.R. Gaskins(University of Illinois, Champaign, Urbana) nd G.R. Gibson(University of Reading 4.1 4.2 What are colonic functional food How are colonic foods metabolised? 4.4 Probiotics 75 4.5 Prebiotics 4.6 Synbiotics 4.7 Health aspects of functional colonic foods 4.8 Host-microbe interaction 4.9 Conclusion 4.10 Reference 5 Coronary heart diseas J.A. Lovegrove and K.G. Jackson, University of reading 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Coronary heart disease and risk factors 5.3 Relevant lipid particles 104 5.4 Diet and coronary heart disease: the evidence 5.5 Effects of probiotics on blood lipids: the evidence

2.5 Functional claims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.6 Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2.7 Labelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2.8 Manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 2.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3 US legislation and functional health claims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 M.K. Schmidl and T.P. Labuza, University of Minnesota 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3.2 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3.3 Nutrient modification and specific nutrient claims . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.4 Disease-specific or disease-prevention (health) claims . . . . . . . 47 3.5 The Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act 1997 55 3.6 Medical foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.7 The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act 1994 . . . 57 3.8 The controversy over labeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3.9 Advertising and the Federal Trade Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3.10 Future trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3.11 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 3.12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Part II Functional foods and health 4 Colonic functional foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 R.A. Rastall (University of Reading), R. Fuller (Russett House, Reading), H.R. Gaskins (University of Illinois, Champaign, Urbana) and G.R. Gibson (University of Reading) 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 4.2 What are colonic functional foods? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 4.3 How are colonic foods metabolised? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 4.4 Probiotics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 4.5 Prebiotics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 4.6 Synbiotics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 4.7 Health aspects of functional colonic foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4.8 Host–microbe interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4.9 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 4.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 5 Coronary heart disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 J.A. Lovegrove and K.G. Jackson, University of Reading 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 5.2 Coronary heart disease and risk factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 5.3 Relevant lipid particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 5.4 Diet and coronary heart disease: the evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 5.5 Effects of probiotics on blood lipids: the evidence . . . . . . . . . . 118 viii Contents

Contents 5.6 The effects of prebiotics on coronary heart disease 5.7 The effects of synbiotics on coronary heart disease 130 5. 8 Future trends 5.9 Sources of further information and advice 5.10 References 132 6 Anti-tumour properties 141 .T. Johnson, Institute of Food Research, Norwich 6.1 Introduction 141 6.2 The nature of tumour growth 6.3 Models of carcinogenesis 145 6.4 Diet and gene interactions 146 6.5 Mechanisms of action: nutrients 6.6 Mechanisms of action: phytochemicals 6.7 Mechanisms of action: other factors 156 6.8 Conclusion: the role of functional food 6.9 Future trends 6.10 Sources of further information and advice 160 6 References 7 Functional foods and acute infections: probiotics and gastrointestinal disorders 167 E. Isolauri and S. Salminen, University of Turku 7 Introduction 167 7.2 The background 7.3 Probiotics and the immune system 17 7.4 Probiotic functional foods and the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders 7.5 Future trends 176 7.6 Sources of further information and advice 7.7 References Part Ill Developing functional food products 8 Maximising the functional benefits of plant foods D G. Lindsay, Institute of Food Research, Norwich 8.1 Introduction 8.2 The concept of functionality 8.3 Functional effects deliverable by plants 185 8.4 Plant sources of functional compounds 8.5 The delivery of functional effects 8.6 Enhancing functional effects 8.7 Factors affecting the intake of functional compounds 8899 8.8 Enhancing macronutrient quality 8.9 Enhancing micronutrient quality

5.6 The effects of prebiotics on coronary heart disease . . . . . . . . . . 124 5.7 The effects of synbiotics on coronary heart disease . . . . . . . . . . 130 5.8 Future trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 5.9 Sources of further information and advice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 5.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 6 Anti-tumour properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 I.T. Johnson, Institute of Food Research, Norwich 6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 6.2 The nature of tumour growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 6.3 Models of carcinogenesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 6.4 Diet and gene interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 6.5 Mechanisms of action: nutrients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 6.6 Mechanisms of action: phytochemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 6.7 Mechanisms of action: other factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 6.8 Conclusion: the role of functional food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 6.9 Future trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 6.10 Sources of further information and advice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 6.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 7 Functional foods and acute infections: probiotics and gastrointestinal disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 E. Isolauri and S. Salminen, University of Turku 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 7.2 The background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 7.3 Probiotics and the immune system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 7.4 Probiotic functional foods and the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 7.5 Future trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 7.6 Sources of further information and advice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 7.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Part III Developing functional food products 8 Maximising the functional benefits of plant foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 D.G. Lindsay, Institute of Food Research, Norwich 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 8.2 The concept of functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 8.3 Functional effects deliverable by plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 8.4 Plant sources of functional compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 8.5 The delivery of functional effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 8.6 Enhancing functional effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 8.7 Factors affecting the intake of functional compounds . . . . . . . . 192 8.8 Enhancing macronutrient quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 8.9 Enhancing micronutrient quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Contents ix

x Contents 8.10 The effects of food processing 8.11 Future trends. the work of neodiet 8.12 References 205 9 Developing functional ingredients: a case study 209 A.-S. Sandberg, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg 9. 1 Introduction: the nutritional properties of peas 209 9.2 Improving pea protein 9.3 Processing issues in improving pea protein 213 9.4 Adding improved protein to food products 9.5 Evaluating the functional and sensory properties of improved pea protein in food products 217 9.6 Future trends: the work of NUTriPea 9.7 Sources of further information and advice 9.8 References 10 Functional fats and spreads 233 E.A.M de decker and p.M verschuren. Unilever Research Vlaardingen 10.1 Introduction 233 10.2 Functional ingredients and chronic diseases: applications in ats and spreads 10.3 Fatty acids 234 10.4 Spreads containing fish oil 10.5 Modified fats and oils 10.6 Phytosterols 10.7 Antioxidants 10.8 Low(zero)fat spreads 24 10.9 Inulin 10.10 Calcium 249 10.11 Conclusions 10.12 Reference 11 Functional confectionery 259 E F. Pickford and N. Jardine, Nestle Product Technology Centre, York 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Types of functional confectionery 11.3 The current market in functional confectionery 261 11.4 The development and manufacture of functional confectionery 268 11.5 Marketing and retailing functional confectionery 11.6 Summary 7 References 285

8.10 The effects of food processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 8.11 Future trends: the work of NEODIET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 8.12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 9 Developing functional ingredients: a case study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 A.-S. Sandberg, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg 9.1 Introduction: the nutritional properties of peas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 9.2 Improving pea protein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 9.3 Processing issues in improving pea protein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 9.4 Adding improved protein to food products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 9.5 Evaluating the functional and sensory properties of improved pea protein in food products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 9.6 Future trends: the work of NUTRIPEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 9.7 Sources of further information and advice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 9.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 10 Functional fats and spreads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 E.A.M. de Deckere and P.M. Verschuren, Unilever Research, Vlaardingen 10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 10.2 Functional ingredients and chronic diseases: applications in fats and spreads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 10.3 Fatty acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 10.4 Spreads containing fish oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 10.5 Modified fats and oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 10.6 Phytosterols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 10.7 Antioxidants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 10.8 Low (zero) fat spreads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 10.9 Inulin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 10.10 Calcium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 10.11 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 10.12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 11 Functional confectionery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 E.F. Pickford and N.J. Jardine, Nestle´ Product Technology Centre, York 11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 11.2 Types of functional confectionery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 11.3 The current market in functional confectionery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 11.4 The development and manufacture of functional confectionery products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 11.5 Marketing and retailing functional confectionery . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 11.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 11.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 x Contents

12 Probiotic functional foods T. Mattila-Sandholm and M. Saarela, ITT Biotechnology, Espoo 12. 1 Introduction: the health benefits of probiotic foods 12.2 Selecting probiotic strains 12.3 Pilot testing in clinical human trials 297 12. 4 Processing issues in developing probiotic foods 12.5 Future trends 12.6 Sources of further information and advice 12.7 References 13 Dietary fibre functional products 315 F. Guillon (URPOl, Centre de Recherches INRA, Nantes), M. Champ (UFDNH, Centre de Recherches INRA, Nantes, and J.-F. Thibault (URPOL, Centre de Recherches INRA, Nantes) 13.1 Introduction 315 13.2 Defining dietary fibre 16 13.3 Sources of dietary fibre 13.4 Processing dietary fibre ingredients 13.5 Processing foods containing dietary fibre 337 13.6 The physiological effects of dietary fibre 340 13.7 Recommended intakes of dietary fibre 350 13. 8 Conclusions and future trends 13.9 Bibliography 355 ndex

12 Probiotic functional foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 T. Mattila-Sandholm and M. Saarela, VTT Biotechnology, Espoo 12.1 Introduction: the health benefits of probiotic foods . . . . . . . . . . 287 12.2 Selecting probiotic strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 12.3 Pilot testing in clinical human trials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 12.4 Processing issues in developing probiotic foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 12.5 Future trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 12.6 Sources of further information and advice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 12.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 13 Dietary fibre functional products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 F. Guillon (URPOI, Centre de Recherches INRA, Nantes), M. Champ (UFDNH, Centre de Recherches INRA, Nantes), and J.-F. Thibault (URPOI, Centre de Recherches INRA, Nantes) 13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 13.2 Defining dietary fibre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 13.3 Sources of dietary fibre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 13.4 Processing dietary fibre ingredients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 13.5 Processing foods containing dietary fibre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 13.6 The physiological effects of dietary fibre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 13.7 Recommended intakes of dietary fibre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 13.8 Conclusions and future trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 13.9 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 Index . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 Contents xi

Introduction Defining functional foods What are functional foods? The complexities involved in definition are a key theme in Chapter 1 of this book. This suggests the following working definition which seeks to isolate the significance of both functional, 'food' in our understanding of the term A food can be regarded asfunctional' if it is satisfactorily demon- strated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutrition, in a way that improves health and well-being or reduces the risk of disease This definition suggests that a product must remain a food to be included within he category. On this basis a functional food can be · a natural food a food to which a positive component has been added, or from which a deleterious component has been removed a food where the nature of one or more components has been modified The idea of functionality'reflects a major shift in attitudes to the relationship between diet and health. Nutritionists have traditionally concentrated on identifying a balanceddiet, that is one ensuring adequate intakes of nutrients and avoiding certain dietary imbalances(for example, excessive consumption of fat, cholesterol and salt)which can contribute towards disease. It is important that this lies behind all sound nutritional principles and guidelines. However, the focus is now on achieving optimised nutrition, maximising life expectancy and quality by identifying food ingredients which, when added to a"balanceddiet

Defining functional foods What are functional foods? The complexities involved in definition are a key theme in Chapter 1 of this book. This suggests the following working definition which seeks to isolate the significance of both ‘functional’ and ‘food’ in our understanding of the term: A food can be regarded as ‘functional’ if it is satisfactorily demon￾strated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutrition, in a way that improves health and well-being or reduces the risk of disease. This definition suggests that a product must remain a food to be included within the category. On this basis a functional food can be: • a natural food • a food to which a positive component has been added, or from which a deleterious component has been removed • a food where the nature of one or more components has been modified. The idea of ‘functionality’ reflects a major shift in attitudes to the relationship between diet and health. Nutritionists have traditionally concentrated on identifying a ‘balanced’ diet, that is one ensuring adequate intakes of nutrients and avoiding certain dietary imbalances (for example, excessive consumption of fat, cholesterol and salt) which can contribute towards disease. It is important that this lies behind all sound nutritional principles and guidelines. However, the focus is now on achieving ‘optimised’ nutrition, maximising life expectancy and quality by identifying food ingredients which, when added to a ‘balanced’ diet, Introduction

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