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上海交通大学:《微生物的世界 Microbial World》通识教育课程教学资源(课件讲稿)第9章 公共健康与生物恐怖主义 Public Health and Bioterrorism

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一、对不同传染疾病的控制方式 Control of Disease 二、全球健康现状 Global Health Considerations 三、疫病的出现与再现 Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases 四、生物战与生物武器 Biological Warfare and Biological Weapons
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上游充通大警 SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 1896 1920 1987 2006 通识教育核心课程 微生物的世界Microbial World 漏 第八章公共健康与生物恐怖主义 Public Health and Bioterrorism 陈峰 上海交通大学生命科学技术学院 cf2001@sjtu.edu.cn

1896 1920 1987 2006 陈峰 上海交通大学生命科学技术学院 cf2001@sjtu.edu.cn 微生物的世界Microbial World 第八章 公共健康与生物恐怖主义 Public Health and Bioterrorism 通识教育核心课程

上游充通大警 SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 公共健康Public Health 公共健康:普通大众的健康,与公共健康部门为 疾病控制采取的行动。 Refers to the health of the general population and to the activities of public health authorities in the control of disease. 2 上海交通大学通识教育核心课程 《微生物的世界》

2 上海交通大学通识教育核心课程《微生物的世界》 公共健康 Public Health 公共健康:普通大众的健康,与公共健康部门为 疾病控制采取的行动。 Refers to the health of the general population and to the activities of public health authorities in the control of disease

上游充通大警 Public Health公共健康 SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY Controls Directed Against Reservoir 对贮存宿主的控制 Controls Directed Against Transmission 对传播路径的控制 Immunization 免疫接种 Quarantine 检疫与隔离 Surveillance 监督 3

3 上海交通大学通识教育核心课程《微生物的世界》 Public Health公共健康 Controls Directed Against Reservoir 对贮存宿主的控制 Controls Directed Against Transmission 对传播路径的控制 Immunization 免疫接种 Quarantine 检疫与隔离 Surveillance 监督

上游充通大¥ SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 1896 1920 1987 2006 一、对不同传染疾病的控制方式 Control of Disease w VANCUALUAO TONG UNIVE

1896 1920 1987 2006 一、对不同传染疾病的控制方式 Control of Disease

上游通大学 SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 1.1对贮存宿主的控制Controls Directed Against the Reservoir 1)如果贮存宿主是家畜家禽,如何控制?fthe reservoir is in domestic animals.how to do? 清除所有的感染动物群,从而消除疾病。Infection can be prevented if the disease is eliminated from the infected animal population. 例子:用于消除普鲁氏菌病和牛结核病,及疯牛病 Example:to eliminate brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis in humans:to eliminate mad cow disease. 请举出一些例子..… 5 上海交通大学通识教育核心课程《微生物的世界》

5 上海交通大学通识教育核心课程《微生物的世界》 1.1 对贮存宿主的控制Controls Directed Against the Reservoir 1)如果贮存宿主是家畜家禽,如何控制?If the reservoir is in domestic animals, how to do? • 清除所有的感染动物群,从而消除疾病。Infection can be prevented if the disease is eliminated from the infected animal population. • 例子:用于消除普鲁氏菌病和牛结核病,及疯牛病 Example: to eliminate brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis in humans; to eliminate mad cow disease. • 请举出一些例子……

上游充通大¥ SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 2)如果贮存宿主是野生动物,如何控制?fthe reservoir is in a wild animal,how to do? 根除要困难得多Eradication is much more difficult. 狂犬病的控制:家畜和人可以通过免疫来控制,但 狂犬病主要存在于野生动物Example:Control of rabies in domestic animals and in humans can be achieved by immunization of domestic animals. However,the majority of rabies cases are in wild animals. 请举出一些例子...… 6 上海交通大学通识教育核心课程《微生物的世界》

6 上海交通大学通识教育核心课程《微生物的世界》 2)如果贮存宿主是野生动物,如何控制?If the reservoir is in a wild animal, how to do? • 根除要困难得多Eradication is much more difficult. • 狂犬病的控制:家畜和人可以通过免疫来控制,但 狂犬病主要存在于野生动物 Example: Control of rabies in domestic animals and in humans can be achieved by immunization of domestic animals. However, the majority of rabies cases are in wild animals. • 请举出一些例子……

上游充通大¥ SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 3)贮存宿主为昆虫If the reservoir is in an insect,, how to do? Effective control of the disease can be accomplished by eliminating the reservoir with chemical insecticides or other lethal agents. 虫剂等制剂消灭宿存寄主 Sometimes the elimination of one public health problem only creates another:e.g.DDT但有时会 带来新的健康问题:DDT 7 上海交通大学通识教育核心课程《微生物的世界》

7 上海交通大学通识教育核心课程《微生物的世界》 3)贮存宿主为昆虫 If the reservoir is in an insect, how to do? • Effective control of the disease can be accomplished by eliminating the reservoir with chemical insecticides or other lethal agents. 以杀 虫剂等制剂消灭宿存寄主 • Sometimes the elimination of one public health problem only creates another: e.g. DDT但有时会 带来新的健康问题:DDT

上游充通大 SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 4)贮存宿主为人类自身If the reservoir is in humans, how to control? Control and eradication can be difficult,esp.if there are asymptomatic carriers.控制和消除困难,特别是 存在无症状携带者时 ● Each case and all possible contacts are strictly quarantined,immunized,and treated with chemotherapy.方式:所有病例及接触者进行严格隔 离、免疫、化学治疗 Example:SARS 8 上海交通大学通识教育核心课程《微生物的世界》

8 上海交通大学通识教育核心课程《微生物的世界》 4)贮存宿主为人类自身 If the reservoir is in humans, how to control? • Control and eradication can be difficult, esp. if there are asymptomatic carriers.控制和消除困难,特别是 存在无症状携带者时 • Each case and all possible contacts are strictly quarantined, immunized, and treated with chemotherapy.方式:所有病例及接触者进行严格隔 离、免疫、化学治疗 • Example: SARS

上游充通大警 SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 1.2对传播路径的控制 Controls Directed Against Transmission Pathogens transmitted via food and water.通过 食物和水传播的病源物 by preventing contamination of these common- source vehicles by destroying the pathogen in the vehicle.将共源媒介(食物和水)中的病源物消除 Transmission of respiratory pathogens:More difficult to prevent.呼吸道传播的病源物 Chemical disinfection消毒 ·Air filtration(small enclosed areas)空气过滤 ·Face masks▣罩 9 上海交通大学通识教育核心课程《微生物的世界》

9 上海交通大学通识教育核心课程《微生物的世界》 1.2对传播路径的控制 Controls Directed Against Transmission Pathogens transmitted via food and water:通过 食物和水传播的病源物 • by preventing contamination of these common￾source vehicles by destroying the pathogen in the vehicle.将共源媒介(食物和水)中的病源物消除 Transmission of respiratory pathogens: More difficult to prevent.呼吸道传播的病源物 • Chemical disinfection消毒 • Air filtration (small enclosed areas)空气过滤 • Face masks口罩

上游充通大警 SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 1.3免疫接种Immunization 主要通过免疫接种来控制的疾病:Smallpox天花 diphtheria白喉,tetanus破伤风,pertussis百日咳, measles,麻疹,mumps腮腺炎,rubella风疹, poliomyelitis急性脊髓灰白质炎:have been controlled primarily by immunization. 10 上海交通大学通识教育核心课程 《微生物的世界》

10 上海交通大学通识教育核心课程《微生物的世界》 1.3免疫接种 Immunization 主要通过免疫接种来控制的疾病:Smallpox天花, diphtheria白喉, tetanus破伤风, pertussis百日咳, measles麻疹, mumps腮腺炎, rubella风疹, poliomyelitis急性脊髓灰白质炎: have been controlled primarily by immunization

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