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上海交通大学:《极端环境中的微生物生命 Microbial Life in Extreme Environments》课程教学资源_Thermophiles

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Microbial Life in Extreme Environments Thermophiles

Microbial Life in Extreme Environments Thermophiles

High Temperature Environments on and in Earth

High Temperature Environments on and in Earth

North American Eurasian plate piate Eurasian plate 》 Juan de Fuca plate Caribbean Filipino plate Arabian plate plate Cocos plate Pacific Nazca African plate plate Australian plate South American plate rplate Australian plate Scotia plate Antarctic plate

Plate Movement ·“Plates”of lithosphere are moved around by the underlying hot mantle convection cells Ridge Plate of Lithosphere Trench. Trench Mantle Mantle Convection Convection Cell Cell Outer core Inner core

Plate Movement • “Plates” of lithosphere are moved around by the underlying hot mantle convection cells

Hot springs Fumaroles-a geothermally heated opening in the Earth where steam and hot gases are expelled. Solfataras (Italian name)-relatively cool fumarole that(l00°Cand300°C)that give off hydrogen sulfide that reacts with the oxygen in the air to produce sulfur deposits

Hot Springs • Fumaroles - a geothermally heated opening in the Earth where steam and hot gases are expelled. • Solfataras (Italian name) - relatively cool fumarole that (100°C and 300°C) that give off hydrogen sulfide that reacts with the oxygen in the air to produce sulfur deposits

Hydrothermal Vents Black smokers lots of sulfur minerals that make dark plume.Chimney made of calcium sulfate and metal sulfides. White smokers barium,calcium and silicon precipitates form white plume.Chimneys made of calcium carbonate.Lost City in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge produces white smokers.Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane-and hydrogen-rich fluids that are highly alkaline(pH 9 to 11),with temperatures ranging from<40°to90°C

Hydrothermal Vents • Black smokers - lots of sulfur minerals that make dark plume. Chimney made of calcium sulfate and metal sulfides. • White smokers - barium, calcium and silicon precipitates form white plume. Chimneys made of calcium carbonate. Lost City in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge produces white smokers. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids that are highly alkaline (pH 9 to 11), with temperatures ranging from <40° to 90°C

Hydrothermal Vents (continued) First vent paper:Lonsdale,P.(1977)."Clustering of suspension-feeding macrobenthos near abyssal hydrothermal vents at oceanic spreading centers". Deep Sea Research 24(9):857. o6 Supercritical fluid-a phase of water having both gas and liquid properties.Formed at high temperature and high pressure. 1992 paper The Deep Hot Biosphere by Thomas Gold. Mining vents?Nautilus Minerals and Neptune Minerals

Hydrothermal Vents (continued) • First vent paper: Lonsdale, P. (1977). "Clustering of suspension-feeding macrobenthos near abyssal hydrothermal vents at oceanic spreading centers". Deep Sea Research 24 (9): 857. • Supercritical fluid - a phase of water having both gas and liquid properties. Formed at high temperature and high pressure. • 1992 paper The Deep Hot Biosphere by Thomas Gold. • Mining vents? Nautilus Minerals and Neptune Minerals

Definitions ·Mesophiles-Topt=20-45℃ Thermophiles-Topt=45-80C Hyperthermophile-Topt =>80C Note that the upper temperature limit for life may be 150C

Definitions • Mesophiles - Topt = 20 - 45ºC • Thermophiles - Topt = 45 - 80ºC • Hyperthermophile - Topt = >80ºC • Note that the upper temperature limit for life may be ~ 150ºC

Did Life Start Out Hot? Eucarya Plants Microsporidia Animals Flagellates Fungi Ciliates Slime molds Diplomonads Green non-sulfur bacteria Bacteria Archaea Sulfolobus Gram positive Desulfurococcus Purple bacteria Thermotoga Thermofilum Flavobacteria Thermoproteus Pyrodictium Cyanobacteria Pyrobaculum Thermococcus Methanothermus Methanobacterium Archaeoglobus Mc.jannaschi Halococcus Methanopyrus c.igneus Halobacterium Aquifex Mc.thermolithotrophicus Methanoplanus Methanospirillum Methano sarcina KO Stetter.1996.FEMS Microbiol.Rev.18:149

Did Life Start Out Hot? KO Stetter. 1996. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 18:149

Thermus aquaticus Thomas Brock Chemoheterotroph Strict aerobe Topt 70C Isolated in Yellowstone in 1969 By Thomas Brock Kerry Mullis Nobel Prize "Great Taq Rip-off

Thermus aquaticus Chemoheterotroph Strict aerobe Topt = 70°C Isolated in Yellowstone in 1969 By Thomas Brock Kerry Mullis Nobel Prize "Great Taq Rip-off" Thomas Brock

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