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同济大学:《环境伦理学》课程教学资源(电子教案)环境伦理学讲稿 Environmental Ethics(负责人:郭茹)

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Personal profile Environmental Ethics Education Background 中环境伦理学 .Research Interests .Environmental Planning and Dr.Guo Ru sion Reduction CESE&IESD,Tongji University Envir nental ethics to me Email:grlinda@gmail.com Your Time this course in 1 Course Introduction Course Outline 美Textbook Science Fthics and Em nen History of Environmental Ethics .Jardins,Des,Environmental urth e ration b hing .Biocentrism Des 三版),北京大学 2004] 1

1 Environmental Ethics 环境伦理学 Dr. Guo Ru CESE&IESD, Tongji University Email: grlinda@gmail.com Personal profile „ Education Background „ Research Interests „ Environmental Planning and management „ Carbon Emission Reduction „ Environmental ethics to me „ Academic „ Daily life Your Time „ Can you describe your expectation in this course in 1~3 sentences? Course Introduction Course Outline „ Science, Ethics and Environment „ Concept and History of Environmental Ethics „ Anthropocentrism „ Animal Right/ liberation „ Biocentrism „ Ecocentrism „ Land ethics „ Deep ecology „ Case discussion Textbook „ Jardins, Des, Environmental Ethics (Fourth edition), Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2002 [Jardins,Des, 环境伦理学(第三版),北京大学 出版社,2004]

Reference Reference .The journal Environmental Ethics .Light,Andrew and Rolston,Holmes .Rachel Carson,Silent Spring,1962 ·Aldo Leopold,an County ne Booksi Reference Assessment ·聚是失梦份鞋的理论走向实践首 Attendence and hor 水环境伦理学.中国因环境科学出版社 意磊道等经.外语敏学与研究出版社, (30%) 。孔子论语外语教学与研究出版社, 逍遥游远方出版社.2005 Why We need Environmental Ethics 2

2 Reference „ The journal Environmental Ethics „ Rachel Carson, Silent Spring,1962 „ Aldo Leopold, Sand County Almanac (Outdoor Essays & Reflections), Ballantine Books; Reissue edition, 1986 „ Paul W. Taylor, Respect for Nature, Princeton University Press,1986 Reference „ Light, Andrew and Rolston, Holmes (Editors), Environmental Ethics: An Anthology, Blackwell Publishers, 2002 „ Newton, Lisa H.;Dillingham, Catherine K.; and Choly, Joanne H.; Watersheds: Ten Cases in Environmental Ethics (Fourth Edition), Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2002[L.H.牛顿等. 分水岭:环境伦理学的10个案例.清华大学出 版社,2005] Reference „ 余谋昌,生态伦理学:从理论走向实践,首 都师范大学出版社,1999 „ 许鸥泳.环境伦理学.中国环境科学出版社 2002 „ 老子.道德经.外语教学与研究出版社, 1998 „ 孔子.论语.外语教学与研究出版社, 1998 „ 庄子.逍遥游.远方出版社.2005 Assessment „ Attendence and homework (20%) „ Class discussion and presentation (30% ) „ Final Term Report and presentation (50%) Why We need Environmental Ethics Nature

Enrionmental Ethics Focus on Relationship between human being and nature. XINHUANET The State of the Planet Modem Science and technology Climate Change (1) The State of the Planet Climate Change (2) Sign of Stress .Temperature raising 。The ice is melting Sea lev de ve storm .Facing water scarcity 3

3 Human Being Enrionmental Ethics „ Focus on „ Relationship between human being and nature. Modern Science and technology The State of the Planet Climate Change (1) Diagram from IPCC The State of the Planet Climate Change (2) Diagram from IPCC Sign of Stress „ Temperature raising „ The ice is melting „ Sea level raising „ More destructive storm „ River drains dry „ Falling water tables „ Facing water scarcity

Sign of Stress biodiversity .Forest shrinking .Fishery collapse ·c freshwater fish spe ened,or endangered in .Rangeland deteriorating Soil eroding Species disappearing Population Growth Ecological Footprints e The State of Our Planet Consequences:Four Earths needed in 2100 Inequalities in Consumption 3 0

4 Sign of Stress „ Forest shrinking „ Fishery collapse „ Rangeland deteriorating „ Soil eroding „ Species disappearing biodiversity „ More than 20% of the world's freshwater fish species have become extinct, threatened, or endangered in recent decades „ Half of the world’s tropical forests have been lost. Population Growth Ecological Footprints 1900 2003 2050 2100 The State of Our Planet Consequences: Four Earths needed in 2100 Inequalities in Consumption „ 1.3 billion people live on less than 1 US dollar a day „ The overall consumption of the richest fifth of the world’s population is 16 times that of the poorest fifth „ Nearly 160 million children are malnourished „ More than 880 million people lack access to health services „ 1.5 billion lack access to sanitation and clean water

MILLENNIUM DECLARATION 2000 Unsustainable Consumption 之r MDG #7 without adequate sanitation at e00 mionslum dwellers,by2020 Goal 7 ·eeiobroegniaopedsstnabe en drivers environment make solutions complex. .As a result,action has been limited on some issues. 5

5 Unsustainable Consumption Energy consumption (TJ) Greenhouse gases (t) CFCs (Kg) Waste (t) Toxic waste (T) Passenger cars Steel consumption 158 13700 450 400 187 443 655 22 1300 16 120 2 6 5 1000 people harm the environment annually by the following factor In Germany Developing Country MILLENNIUM DECLARATION 2000 http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/# MDG #7 ¾ Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs; reverse loss of environmental resources ¾ Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water (1.2 billion) ¾ Reduce by half the proportion of people without adequate sanitation (2.4 billion) ¾ Achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, by 2020 http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Default.aspx Goal 7 „ Some progress toward sustainable development has been made. „ However, interlinkage between drivers and pressures on the global environment make solutions complex. „ As a result, action has been limited on some issues

Possible Reasons for Environmental Crisis Continuing population growth: More to the point,we need to be the ta con on scientists are asking. answers. Limitation of Current Solution Limitation of Current Solution Limitation of science and technology imitation of the concept of Sustainable cus on human's i ests but not Limitation of current public policy llty for the natura End-of-pipe orented .Lack of equity Case discussion ot8ngat2RtPbsemenaletatrc。gfaurent S武e8 abeter wy .Topic:How to balance development and preservation? a6on2he9rme (more details in next slide) .Style:Group Discussion .Discussion :5~10 minutes That's Whywe need .Presentation:3 minutes Environmental Ethics! 6

6 Possible Reasons for Environmental Crisis „ Continuing population growth; „ Large-scale production, large-scale consumption oriented social￾economical system „ Inequalities „ Ideology: anthropocentrism „ More to the point, we need to be especially careful in determining which questions the environmental scientists are asking. „ If the questions are limited, so too will the answers be----and so too will the policy recommendations that society adopts based on those answers. Limitation of Current Solution „ Limitation of science and technology „ Can not solve the basic issue such as how we ought to live, human’s position in the natural world, and human’s responsibility for the nature „ Limitation of current public policy „ End-of-pipe oriented „ Lack of equity Limitation of Current Solution „ Limitation of the concept of Sustainable Development „ Anthropocentrism, including future generation; „ Focus on human’s interests but not cover the issue of our responsibility for the natural Environment. Environmental problems and limitation of current solutions raise fundamental questions of environmental ethics and philosophy. Environmental Ethics helps us to find a better way to deal with them. „ Various ethical theories have played a major job in our tradition. By learning about ethical theories, we become more aware of the patterns in our ways of thinking and the assumptions reflected therein. That’s Why we need Environmental Ethics! Case discussion „ Topic: How to balance development and preservation? (more details in next slide) „ Style : Group Discussion „ Discussion : 5~10 minutes „ Presentation : 3 minutes

Background aks in the b Condusion of the.. Environmental ethics focuses on relatio nship between human being g Mi largely in i d be consistent with the p ervation of the Assignment Regarding Group .Think and discuss more about 5~6 grouDs 00 .Final name list for each group is needed words)regarding your own understanding by Friday. Any Questions? Outine Environmental Ethics 2 环境伦理学 Review What is environmental ethics .The concep Dr.GUo Ru elopment ssion Email:grlinda @gmail.c 7

7 Background ™Mineral King is a spectacular secluded valley surrounded by 12000' peaks in the heart of the southern Sierra Nevada. In 1960s, Walt Disney was chosen to invest a ski resort project in Mineral King Valley. However, Representatives of Sierra Club favored maintaining Mineral King largely in its present state and endorsed only those recreational uses that would be consistent with the preservation of the wilderness in Mineral King Valley. ™Suppose you are the residents of Mineral King Valley / President of Walt Disney / Local governor/NGO(Sierra Club), What will you do then? Conclusion „ Environmental ethics focuses on relationship between human being and nature. „ Science and technology is not enough. „ The way of thinking is more important than knowledge. Assignment „ Think and discuss more about environmental ethics topics. Each one is expected to submit a paper (1000~3000 words) regarding your own understanding of environmental ethics before Oct. 15th (Wednesday). Regarding Group „ 5~6 groups „ Final name list for each group is needed by Friday. „ Just for class discussion and presention, not for final term report. Any Questions? Environmental Ethics 2 环境伦理学 Dr. Guo Ru CESE&IESD, Tongji University Email: grlinda@gmail.com Outline „ Review „ What is environmental ethics „ The concept „ The origin and development „ Class discussion „ Summary

Review of last lecture relatio and nature .Science and technology is not ough Question .Have you discussed with your dassmates or What is Environmental Ethics What Does Ethics Mean? Environmental Ethics A discipline dealing with what is The distinction bety een a :entric good and evil,with moral duty and obligation. tal ethics assu that moral at -The Merriam Webster Dictionary,2005 hat 8

8 Review of last lecture „ Environmental ethics focuses on relationship between human being and nature. „ Science and technology is not enough. „ The way of thinking is more important than knowledge. Question „ Have you discussed with your classmates or roommates about environmental ethics? Would you like to give an example related to environmental ethics? What is Environmental Ethics What Does Ethics Mean? A discipline dealing with what is good and evil, with moral duty and obligation. ——The Merriam Webster Dictionary,2005 Environmental Ethics „ The distinction between anthropocentric and nonanthropocentric ethics is a fundamental divide within environmental ethics. „ Environmental ethics assumes that moral norms can and do govern human behavior towards the natural world. A theory of environmental ethics, then, must go on to explain what these norms are and to whom or to what humans have responsibilities

Main Focuses of Environmental Ethics Studies Question .The value and right of nature What should I live? .What kinds of normsor criteria you might use when you make d answers above and norms based on alethics issues in Differences between Traditional Ethics and Environmental Ethics ditional Ethics and Environmental Ethics Traditional Ethics mer The relat Ottped e thic a s on relat ionship betwe en hu The Origin and Development of Environmental Ethics a209Newe "Our National Parks"The sierra club(1892) 9

9 Main Focuses of Environmental Ethics Studies „ The value and right of nature different theories give different answers (Anthropocentrism, Animal Liberation/Right, Biocentrism, Ecocentrism) „ Human Morals and norms based on answers above „ Environmental ethics issues in practical life Question „ What should I live? „ What kinds of norms or criteria you might use when you make decisions? „ People is more important? Future generation is more important? Ecological balance is more important?...... Differences between Traditional Ethics and Environmental Ethics Nature’ s Instrumental value Intrinsic value value Ideology Anthropocentrism Nonanthropocentrism Out of human being, within Species, ecological system Range of Within human being moral standing Environmental crisis & movement Racial liberation, women liberation, etc. Back￾ground Traditional Ethics Environmental Ethics Traditional Ethics and Environmental Ethics „ In traditional ethics, there has few evidence/basis for environmental ethics; „ The relationship between human and nature is a independent domain. It is difficult to induce environmental ethics from traditional ethics, which is mainly focus on relationship between humans; „ Environmental ethics is a new ethics; not just an extension of traditional ethics; a revolution of human ideology. Universe Planet Ecosystem Rock Life Plant Animal Human Race Country Region Tribe Family Ego Future Now Past Before ethics The Origin and Development of Environmental Ethics Natural Resource Protection Movement in Western Countries in 19th Century „ Preservation movement (John Muir, 1838-1914 ):preserve nature because of its aesthetic value “Our National Parks”The sierra club (1892) „ Conservation movement (Gifford Pinchot, 1865-1946, utilitarian) : conserve nature because its economic value;Manage scientifically, Use wisely „ Debate on Hetch Hetchy Valley planning (1907-1913) Yosemite National Park

Social Background of the Birth of Pioneers of Environmental Ethics Bnvironmental Ethics ·ka0e老f571-471B.c“Dao follows ·e8P2 re im是8c4862 Environmental Rachel .John Muir(1838-1914)"Preservation' 971,P fessor W.Blacks %rBge28e閣Reverence of Environmenta Some Theoreticians .Bryan Norton:Weak Anthropocentrism .Peter Singer(1946-):Animal Liberation Key Points of Ethical Theory .Tom Regan(1938-):Animal Right .Paul Taylor(1923-):Respect for nature Aldo Leopold(1887-1948):Land ethics .Ame Naess(1912-):Deep ecology Discussion Key Points DDT case Moral Agents Moral Star .Topic: Who is responsible for harm caused by DDT? Style:Group Discussion Discusion-10 minutes 2minutes 10

10 Pioneers of Environmental Ethics „ Lao Zi 老子(571-471)B.C. “ Dao follows Nature” „ Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) “Walden” or “Life in the Woods” „ John Muir (1838-1914) “Preservation” „ A. Schweizter (1875-1965) “Reverence for life” (Biocentric Ethics) Social Background of the Birth of Environmental Ethics „ Competition for Economic growth in western countries since the World War II (Nationalism) „ Environmental crisis and Environmental movement in 1960s Rachel Carson's landmark book : Silent Spring, 1962 „ 1971, Professor W. Blackstone organized a philosophy discussion on environmental issues in University of Georgia. It is the start of environmental ethics. Some Theoreticians of Environmental Ethics „ Bryan Norton: Weak Anthropocentrism „ Peter Singer (1946-):Animal Liberation „ Tom Regan (1938-): Animal Right „ Paul Taylor (1923-): Respect for nature „ Aldo Leopold (1887-1948): Land ethics „ Arne Naess (1912-): Deep ecology Key Points of Ethical Theory Key Points „ Moral Agents „ Moral Standing „ Criteria for Moral Standing The differences of theories mainly derive from moral agents and moral standing criteria. Discussion DDT case „ Topic: Who is responsible for harm caused by DDT? „ Style : Group Discussion „ Discussion : 5-10 minutes „ Presentation : 2 minutes „ Q&A: 2 minutes

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