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上海交通大学:《生物化学 Biochemistry(B类)》课程教学资源(课件讲稿)Chapter 04 DNA, RNA, and Genetic Information

1.A Nucleic Acid Consists of Four Kinds of Bases Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone 2.A Pair of Nucleic Acid Chains with Complementary Sequences Can Form a Double￾Helical Structure 3.DNA Is Replicated by Polymerases That Take Instructions from Templates
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上游充通大学 Introduction SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 中心法则: 核酸 蛋白质 Transcription Trarelation 转录 翻译 Protein DNA RNA 蛋白质 Reverse Trarscription 逆转录 Transcription Translation Protein DNA mRNA 基因必须表达后才能执行其功能;蛋白质调节基因的表达

Introduction 中心法则: 基因必须表达后才能执行其功能;蛋白质调节基因的表达。 核酸 蛋白质

上游充通大学 OUTLINES SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 1.A Nucleic Acid Consists of Four Kinds of Bases Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone 2.A Pair of Nucleic Acid Chains with Complementary Sequences Can Form a Double- Helical Structure 3.DNA Is Replicated by Polymerases That Take Instructions from Templates

1.A Nucleic Acid Consists of Four Kinds of Bases Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone 2.A Pair of Nucleic Acid Chains with Complementary Sequences Can Form a Double￾Helical Structure 3.DNA Is Replicated by Polymerases That Take Instructions from Templates OUTLINES

上浒充通大 OUTLINES SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 4.Gene Expression Is the Transformation of DNA Information into Functional Molecules 5.Amino Acids Are Encoded by Groups of Three Bases Starting from a Fixed Point 6.Most Eukaryotic Genes Are Mosaics of Introns and Exons

4.Gene Expression Is the Transformation of DNA Information into Functional Molecules 5.Amino Acids Are Encoded by Groups of Three Bases Starting from a Fixed Point 6.Most Eukaryotic Genes Are Mosaics of Introns and Exons OUTLINES

上游充通大兽 1 A Nucleic Acid Consists of 4 Kinds of Bases SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone >生物大分子 >携带遗传信息 >核苷酸的线性聚合物 >每个核苷酸有糖基、磷酸和碱基 遗传信息 Basej Basej+1 Basei+2 骨架…》Sugar Sugar Sugar Sugar Sugar ●● Phosphate Phosphate Phosphate Phosphate Phosphate Figure 4.1 Polymeric structure of nucleic acids

1 A Nucleic Acid Consists of 4 Kinds of Bases Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone Figure 4.1 Polymeric structure of nucleic acids.  生物大分子  携带遗传信息  核苷酸的线性聚合物  每个核苷酸有糖基、磷酸和碱基 骨架 遗传信息

上游充通大学 1 A Nucleic Acid Consists of 4 Kinds of Bases SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone 核糖和脱氧核糖: >五元糖 >核糖-mRNA >脱氧核糖-DNA 5 HO OH HO OH H HO OH HO Ribose Deoxyribose Figure 4.2 Ribose and deoxyribose.Atoms in sugar units are numbered with primes to distinguish them from atoms in bases

1 A Nucleic Acid Consists of 4 Kinds of Bases Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone Figure 4.2 Ribose and deoxyribose. Atoms in sugar units are numbered with primes to distinguish them from atoms in bases. 核糖和脱氧核糖:  五元糖  核糖 --- mRNA  脱氧核糖 --- DNA

上游充通大学 1 A Nucleic Acid Consists of 4 Kinds of Bases SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone 核酸骨架(2种): base base base 核苷酸 脱氧核糖核酸 5 12 DNA base base base 核糖核酸 OH OH 5 3 2 H2 RNA 磷酸二酯键 Figure 4.3 Backbones of DNA and RNA.The backbones of these nucleic acids are formed by 3'-to-5'phosphodiester linkages.A sugar unit is high-lighted in red and a phosphate group in blue

1 A Nucleic Acid Consists of 4 Kinds of Bases Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone Figure 4.3 Backbones of DNA and RNA. The backbones of these nucleic acids are formed by 3' -to-5' phosphodiester linkages. A sugar unit is high-lighted in red and a phosphate group in blue 磷酸二酯键 核苷酸 核酸骨架(2种): 脱氧核糖核酸 核糖核酸

上游充通大兽 1 A Nucleic Acid Consists of 4 Kinds of Bases SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone 碱基结构(5种): NH2 嘌呤(2种) PURINES Purine Adenine Guanine 腺嘌呤 鸟嘌呤 嘧啶(3种) DNA CH3 H 5 PYRIMIDINES H Pyrimidine Thymine Cvtosine Uracil RNA 胸腺嘧啶 胞嘧啶 尿嘧啶 Figure 4.4 Purines and pyrimidines.Atoms within bases are numbered without primes.Uracil is present in RNA instead of thymine

1 A Nucleic Acid Consists of 4 Kinds of Bases Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone Figure 4.4 Purines and pyrimidines. Atoms within bases are numbered without primes. Uracil is present in RNA instead of thymine. 碱基结构(5种): 嘌呤(2种) 嘧啶(3种) DNA RNA 腺嘌呤 鸟嘌呤 胸腺嘧啶 胞嘧啶 尿嘧啶

上游充通大兽 1 A Nucleic Acid Consists of 4 Kinds of Bases SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone 核苷结构(8种): NH2 阝-糖苷键 B-Glycosidic linkage H2 N 5 HO H 3 OH Figure 4.5 B-Glycosidic linkage in a nucleoside

1 A Nucleic Acid Consists of 4 Kinds of Bases Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone Figure 4.5 b-Glycosidic linkage in a nucleoside. 核苷结构(8种): b -糖苷键 5’ 3’

上游充通大学 1 A Nucleic Acid Consists of 4 Kinds of Bases SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone 核苷酸的衍生物: NH2 H2 HO NH2 HO OH 5'-ATP 3'-dGMP 5'-三磷酸腺苷 3'-磷酸脱氧鸟嘌呤核苷 Figure 4.6 Nucleotides adenosine 5'-triphosphate(5'-ATP)and deoxyguanosine 3'-monophosphate(3'-dGMP)

1 A Nucleic Acid Consists of 4 Kinds of Bases Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone Figure 4.6 Nucleotides adenosine 5' -triphosphate (5' -ATP) and deoxyguanosine 3' -monophosphate (3' -dGMP). 5’-三磷酸腺苷 3’-磷酸脱氧鸟嘌呤核苷 核苷酸的衍生物:

上游充通大兽 1 A Nucleic Acid Consists of 4 Kinds of Bases SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone 核酸链的组成: 磷酸 核酸→ 核苷酸 戊糖 核苷 碱基 遗传密码 Basei Basei+1 Basei+2 阝-糖苷键 ●● Sugar Sugar Sugar Sugar Sugar Phosphate Phosphate Phosphate Phosphate Phosphate 磷酸二酯键

1 A Nucleic Acid Consists of 4 Kinds of Bases Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone 磷酸二酯键 b -糖苷键 核酸链的组成: 遗传密码 核 酸 核苷酸 磷 酸 核 苷 戊 糖 碱 基

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