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上海交通大学:《生物化学 Biochemistry(B类)》课程教学资源(课件讲稿)Chapter 02 Protein Composition and Structure

1. Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids 2. Primary Structure: Amino Acids Are Linked by Peptide Bonds to Form Polypeptide Chains 3. Secondary Structure: Polypeptide Chains Can Fold into Regular Structures Such As the Alpha Helix, the Beta Sheet, and Turns and Loops
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上游充通大¥ Introduction SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY Protein:生物功能的主要载体,存在于身体各个组织 >Macromolecules(数千~数十万) >Versatile(组成-结构-功能) >Structure and Function(激素、酶.) 生物合成人胰岛素注射液 诺和灵”R笔芯 NovolinR Penfill 度下,静林注射 3:300周郎单位(笔芯) 3m0 mW支X1支度 Maintain blood sugar at appropriate levels Structure and Crystals of human insulin.I

Introduction Structure and Crystals of human insulin. I Protein: 生物功能的主要载体,存在于身体各个组织  Macromolecules (数千~数十万)  Versatile (组成-结构-功能)  Structure and Function(激素、酶…) Maintain blood sugar at appropriate levels

上游充通大¥ OUTLINES SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 结构单元、聚合方式以及聚合后的形成的结构形态 9000806 Primary Secondary Tertiary Quarternary structure structure structure structure 1.Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids 2.Primary Structure:Amino Acids Are Linked by Peptide Bonds to Form Polypeptide Chains 3.Secondary Structure:Polypeptide Chains Can Fold into Regular Structures Such As the Alpha Helix,the Beta Sheet,and Turns and Loops

OUTLINES 1. Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids 2. Primary Structure: Amino Acids Are Linked by Peptide Bonds to Form Polypeptide Chains 3. Secondary Structure: Polypeptide Chains Can Fold into Regular Structures Such As the Alpha Helix, the Beta Sheet, and Turns and Loops 结构单元、聚合方式以及聚合后的形成的结构形态

上游充通大学 OUTLINES SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY Primary Secondary Tertiary Quarternary structure struc量Ure s量ructure s晋ructure 4.Tertiary Structure:Water-Soluble Proteins Fold into Compact Structures with Nonpolar Cores 5.Quaternary Structure:Polypeptide Chains Can Assemble into Multisubunit Structures 6.The Amino Acid Sequence of a Protein Determines Its Three-Dimensional Structure

OUTLINES 4. Tertiary Structure: Water-Soluble Proteins Fold into Compact Structures with Nonpolar Cores 5. Quaternary Structure: Polypeptide Chains Can Assemble into Multisubunit Structures 6. The Amino Acid Sequence of a Protein Determines Its Three-Dimensional Structure

上游充通大¥ OUTLINES SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 结构单元、聚合方式以及聚合后的形成的结构形态 9000e0e Primary Secondary Tertiary Quarternary structure structure structure structure 1.Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids 2.Primary Structure:Amino Acids Are Linked by Peptide Bonds to Form Polypeptide Chains 3.Secondary Structure:Polypeptide Chains Can Fold into Regular Structures Such As the Alpha Helix,the Beta Sheet,and Turns and Loops

OUTLINES 1. Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids 2. Primary Structure: Amino Acids Are Linked by Peptide Bonds to Form Polypeptide Chains 3. Secondary Structure: Polypeptide Chains Can Fold into Regular Structures Such As the Alpha Helix, the Beta Sheet, and Turns and Loops 结构单元、聚合方式以及聚合后的形成的结构形态

上游充通大¥ 1.Proteins Are Built from a SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids Transcription Trarelation 转录 翻译 Protein DNA RNA 蛋白质 Reverse Trarscription 逆转录 Transcription Translation Protein DNA mRNA DNA的结构单元:核苷酸4种 蛋白质的结构单元:氨基酸20种 Versatile (组成结构-功能)

1.Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids DNA的结构单元: 核苷酸 4 种 蛋白质的结构单元:氨基酸 20 种 Versatile (组成-结构-功能)

上游充通大学 SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 1.Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids R (3) 蛋白质的结构单元 H(4) R H (2) (1) NH3 L isomer NH3* D isomer S configuration Figure 2.4 The L and D isomers of amino acids.L and D isomers are mirror images of each other.Only L amino acids are found in proteins

1.Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids Figure 2.4 The L and D isomers of amino acids. L and D isomers are mirror images of each other. Only L amino acids are found in proteins S configuration 蛋白质的结构单元

上海充通大学 SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 1.Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids Distinctive R goroup:sides,shape,charge, hydrogenbonding capacity,hydrophobic character.... H+ +H3N COOH +H3N H2N coO H+ H+ 兼性离子 Zwitterionic Both groups form deprotonated Both groups protonated 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 PH lonization state as a function of pH

1.Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids Ionization state as a function of pH. Distinctive R goroup: sides, shape, charge, hydrogenbonding capacity, hydrophobic character…. 兼性离子

上游充通大学 1.Proteins Are Built from a SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids Distinctive R goroup: >按侧链结构划分: >按侧链性质划分: Aliphatic (15) I)Non-polar (8) Aromatic (3) Aliphatic (5) Heterocyclic (2) Aromatic (2) Heterocyclic (1) (3) Il)Polar(12)活性基团 H(4) Uncharged (1+1+2+3) (2) Acidic (2) (1) NH3 00 Basic (3) L isomer

1.Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids I)Non-polar (8) Aliphatic(5) Aromatic(2) Heterocyclic(1) II)Polar(12)活性基团 Uncharged(1+1+2+3) Acidic (2) Basic (3)  按侧链结构划分:  按侧链性质划分: Aliphatic(15) Aromatic(3) Heterocyclic(2) Distinctive R goroup:

上游充通大¥ SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 1.Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids (1)非极性氨基酸: R基为脂肪侧链(5): H3 H2 +H3N H3N coo H3N +H3N H3N C00 CH3 +H3N C00- CH3 H H CH3 Alanine C00 HaN COO- +H3N- C00 (Ala,A) H H H Valine Leucine Isoleucine Methionine (Val.V) (Leu.Ll (lle-I1 (Met.M) 丙氨酸 缬氨酸 亮氨酸 异亮氨酸 甲硫氨酸

1.Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids 丙氨酸 R基为脂肪侧链(5): (1)非极性氨基酸: 缬氨酸 亮氨酸 异亮氨酸 甲硫氨酸

上游充通大学 SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY 1.Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids (1)非极性氨基酸: R基为脂肪侧链(5): 名称你 结构与功能特点 异亮氨酸、亮氨酸、 均含有较大的疏水侧链,其刚性结构特征及疏水相互作用都对蛋白折 缬氨酸 叠有重要的影响力,常作为水溶性蛋白的内部支撑结构 是多肽链生物合成的起始氨基酸;参与体内含硫化合物代谢及甲基化 甲硫氨酸 反应 丙氨酸 转氨酶中的氨基供体

名称你 结构与功能特点 异亮氨酸、亮氨酸、 缬氨酸 均含有较大的疏水侧链,其刚性结构特征及疏水相互作用都对蛋白折 叠有重要的影响力,常作为水溶性蛋白的内部支撑结构 甲硫氨酸 是多肽链生物合成的起始氨基酸;参与体内含硫化合物代谢及甲基化 反应 丙氨酸 转氨酶中的氨基供体 R基为脂肪侧链(5): (1)非极性氨基酸: 1.Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids

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